The delegate also decided to create new Appendices E, F and I entries specifically for hexyloxyethanol. Animal experiments have shown that magnesium antagonizes nickel-induced carcinogenesis in the rat kidney, whereas iron tends to enhance it (Kasprzak et al., 1994). They both had an uneventful recovery following treatment with bicarbonate and ethanol. Some industrial cleaners contain greater than 90% 2-butoxyethanol. ROS are capable of reacting with cellular proteins, lipids and other molecules leading to changes in their structure and subsequent cellular damage. Ironically, chemotherapeutic and other toxic agents, particularly alkylating agents, may result in leukemia, which is likely linked to cytogenetic abnormalities, especially with the loss of part or all of a chromosome. 2-Butoxyethanol is not considered to be genotoxic. Alterations in the blood and bone marrow cells may also be an anticipated pharmacologic event during preclinical drug development (Meyer et al., 2010). The patient was treated with forced diuresis, bicarbonate and hemodialysis. In addition, there is considerable variation in the susceptibility of cells from different mouse strains to the nitroso metabolite. On the other hand, iron chelators can counteract cell damage (Reizenstein, 1991). There was an indication of ethanol inhibition of butylglycol metabolism and of an effect of hemodialysis in this patient. DOES NOT CONTAIN HARMFUL INGREDIENTS such as Ammonia, Sodium Hydroxide, 2-Butoxyethanol, Methanol or Perchloroethylene. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done. A study conducted in 1989 tested a series of 2-butoxyethanol concentrations (10, 20, 30, 70 and 100%) for eye irritation. D. Jacobsen, K.E. A current model of 2-BE effects seen in mice suggests that 2-BE induces macrophage activation and inflammation in the liver involving Kupffer cells (liver macrophages). In experimental studies, 2-butoxyethanol increased liver tumors in B6C3F1mice after chronic exposure. Used in industry for degreasing and detergent applications.2-n-Butoxyethanol is used in the industry for degreasing and detergent applications. Until more data are available, ethanol, not 4-methylpyrazole, should be used in order to prevent an assumed formation of toxic metabolites by the alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver. In rats, adverse effects on the central nervous system, kidneys, and liver occur at higher exposure concentrations than do haemolytic effects. Although the inhalation and skin and eye irritation data of a 20% 2-butoxyethanol preparation aligns with the Schedule 5 SPF factors, mandatory GHS labelling of plant growth regulator preparations as regulated by the APVMA should be sufficient. Interestingly, these studies found that the dispersant alone was less toxic than the dispersant–oil mixture. Rodney R. Dietert, in Endocrine Disruption and Human Health, 2015. To keep glass germ-free, use a disinfectant first and then wipe it down with Windex Original Glass Cleaner. Breast cancer cells have been shown to display 5–15 times more transferrin receptors than normal breast tissue cells. Similar to ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol is used in antifreeze, brake fluids, and deicing solutions. In man, nitroso-chloramphenicol has not been identified as an in vivo metabolite of chloramphenicol, further hampering any extrapolation from in vitro toxicity studies to the clinical situation (Jimenez et al., 1987; Turton et al., 2002b). 2-Butoxyethanol is also used in medicines and medical devices currently registered on the ARTG. Acetic acid or white vinegar is a great disinfectant. The PSC noted that ethylene glycol monomethyl- and monoethyl ethers were the most toxic of the series, which demonstrated significant testicular effects, reproductive toxicity, haematological effects and were toxic at inhalation levels at the threshold limit value (TLV). In a study of topical exposure of mice to 2-BE, Singh et al. It also acts as a deodorizer and cuts grease. No increase in urine oxalate content was observed. Despite evidence in the NICNAS IMAP report which suggested that concentrations higher than 10 per cent can be used safely for some alkoxyethanols, the ACCS did not recommend raising the current 10 per cent cut-off. An elevated dietary iron intake enhances the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats and estrogen-induced kidney tumors in Syrian hamsters.
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